Copernicus first put his concept for a heliocentric cosmos in writing in a manuscript that today bears the title Nicolai Copernici de hypothesibus motuum coelestium a se constitutis commentariolus (roughly translated: Nicolas Copernicus’ short commentary on his hypothesis about the movement of the celestial bodies) of which three manuscripts are known to exist today. None of them, however, in Copernicus’ own handwriting. There is almost no direct evidence for the existence of this document in the sixteenth century and almost everything that we can say about its origin, its distribution and its impact is based on reasonable, speculative interpretation of indirect evidence.
It is disputed whether the title Commentariolus, for short, was written by Copernicus or was added at a later date; it has been speculated that it was added by Tycho Brahe, who possessed a copy, which is one of the three surviving copies and is now housed in the Viennese Court Library. In his Astronomiae Instauratae Progymnasmata (1602) Tycho wrote that his copy was given to him by Thaddaeus Hagecius (1525–1600). He also said that he had made several copies and distributed them to friends.
Title page of the Viennese Commentariolus manuscript Source: Wikimedia Commons
The Viennese manuscript was first found in 1877 but it is incomplete, missing a substantial part of Copernicus’ lunar theory. In 1881 a complete manuscript was found in the library of the Stockholm Observatory bound into a second edition of De Revolutionibus, which had been the property of Hevelius. The third manuscript was also found bound into a second edition of De revolutionibus that had belonged to Duncan Liddel (1561–1613) in the library of Saint Andrews University in Scotland. Liddel studied at various North German universities and was later a professor for mathematics at Helmstedt University before going on to qualify as a physician and becoming a professor for medicine. A fairly normal career path in the sixteenth century. He knew Tycho Brahe and visited him at least twice on the island of Hven. It should be noted that all three surviving copies of the Commentariolus were owned by people who lived after the publication of De revolutionibus and the death of its author.
The first probably mention of the Commentariolus occurred in 1514. The Cracovian physician, geographer and historian, Matthias of Miechow (1457–1523) noted in a library catalogue in the Jagiellonian Library dated 1 May 1514 the following:
Item sexternus theorice asserentis terram moveri, Solem vero quiescere
A quire of six leaves (sexternus) of a theory asserting that the Earth moves whereas the Sun is at rest.
It is assumed that this is a reference to the Commentariolus, probably a copy originally given by Copernicus to his Cracovian friend Canon Bernard Wapowski (1450–1535) a cartographer and historian.
Excerpt from the library catalogue of Matthias von Miechow (1457–1523) 1. Mai 1514 with the Commentariolus hint: „Item sexternus theorice asserentis terram moveri, Solem vero quiescere“. Source: Wikimedia Commons
There are no direct references to the Commentariolus before the publication of De Revolutionibus in 1543. However, there are various episodes in Copernicus’ life that can probably be attributed to knowledge of the Commentariolus.
Paul of Middelburg (1446–1534) sent out a general call to astronomers and rulers asking for suggestions and contributions towards a proposed calendar reform at the Lateran Council (1512–1517). Paul noted in 1516 that one of those who answered that call was Copernicus in a letter that no longer exists. Perhaps Copernicus was on Paul’s list because of the Commentariolus, he had at this point published no other astronomical works that might have motivate Paul to consult him.
In 1533 Johann Albrecht Widmannstetter (1506–1557), who was a papal secretary held a series of lectures to an audience of Pope Clement VII and some cardinals outlining Copernicus’ heliocentric theories for which he was richly rewarded by the Pope with a rare manuscript. It can be assumed that his source of knowledge of those theories was the Commentariolus. Following the death of Pope Clement in 1534 Widmannstetter became secretary to Cardinal Nikolaus von Schönberg (1472–1537), who wrote a letter to Copernicus in 1536 concerning his theories and offering to have the manuscript of his theories (De revolutionibus) copied at his expense. This letter would be included in the published version of De revolutionibus.
In 1539 Martin Luther (1483–1546), in his cups, reputedly launched an attack on Copernicus’ heliocentric hypothesis, as recorded by Anton Lauterbach in the Tischreden (Table Talk) first published in 1566. (More details here)
There was mention of a certain astrologer who wanted to prove that the earth moves and not the sky, the sun, and the moon. This would be as if somebody were riding on a cart or in a ship and imagined that he was standing still while the earth and the trees were moving. [Luther remarked] “So it goes now. Whoever wants to be clever must agree with nothing that others esteem. He must do something of his own. This is what that fellow does who wishes to turn the whole of astronomy upside down. Even in these things that are thrown into disorder I believe the Holy Scriptures, for Joshua commanded the sun to stand still and not the earth [Jos. 10:12].”
Copernicus was not mentioned by name in Luther’s tirade and also no great details of the hypothesis. It can be assumed that indirect knowledge of the Commentariolus had come to Luther’s ears.
Our last possible indirect knowledge of the Commentariolus can be attributed to Georg Joachim Rheticus (1514–1574), who famously persuaded Copernicus to publish De revolutionibus. Rheticus set off for Frombork in 1539 already aware of the fact that Copernicus was propagating a heliocentric hypothesis. Did this knowledge come directly or indirectly from the Commentariolus?
So what does the Commentariolus consist of? In a very brief introduction Copernicus writes:
Our Ancestors assumed, I observe, a large number of celestial spheres for this reason especially, to explain the apparent motion of the planets by the principle of regularity. For they thought it altogether absurd that a heavenly body, which is a perfect sphere, should not always move uniformly. They saw that by connecting and combining regular motions in various ways they could make any body appear to move to any position.
Callippus and Eudoxus, who endeavoured to solve the problem by use of concentric spheres, were unable to account for all planetary movements; they had to explain not merely the apparent revolutions of the planets but also the fact that these bodies appear to us sometimes to mount higher in the heavens, sometimes to descend; and this fact is incompatible with the principle of concentricity. Therefore it seemed better to employ eccentrics and epicycles, a system which most scholars finally accepted.
Yet the planetary theories of Ptolemy and most other astronomers, although consistent with the numerical data, seemed likewise to present no small difficulty. For these theories were not adequate unless certain equants were also conceived; it then appeared that a planet moved with uniform velocity neither on its deferent nor about the center of its epicycle. Hence a system of this sort seemed neither sufficiently absolute nor sufficiently pleasing to the mind.
Having become aware of these defects, I often considered whether there could perhaps be found a more reasonable arrangement of circles, from which every apparent inequality would be derived and in which everything would move uniformly about its proper center, as the rule of absolute motion require. After I had addressed myself to this very difficult and almost insoluble problem, the suggestion at length came to me how it could be solved with fewer and much simpler constructions than were formally used, if some assumptions (which are axioms) were granted me. They follow in this order.
In this brief introduction, which I have given here in full, Copernicus makes very clear why he thinks that astronomy needs reforming. He is in principle quite happy with an epicycle-deferent model but not with the use of equants, which he sees as violating the fundamental principle of uniform circular motion, a philosophically founded astronomical axiom that he wholeheartedly accepts. The equant point is an abstract off-centre point inside the orbit of a planet, which when used as the viewing point gives the planet on its epicycle-deferent uniform motion.
equant: A sphere that is centered at the center of the universe, but whose motion varies irregularly as if it were centered at another spot, called the equant point. This geometrical tool allowed Ptolemaic astronomers to construct orbits with the observed variations of speed without resorting to the ugliness of a sphere that was actually off center (an eccentric). The Planet is actually on the outer circle below, centered at E, the center of the universe. The sphere, however, moves as if it were centered at the point marked equant below, so that it takes equal times for the planet to move from 1 to 2, from 2 to 3, from 3 to 4 and from 4 back to 1, even though the distances vary. This produces a variation in the observed speed of the planet. Source
What is interesting is that he gives no indication of the bombshell that he is about to lob into the astronomy-cosmology debate with the assumptions that he wishes to be granted by his readers. They follow immediately on the introduction. He merely wishes to substitute a heliocentric system for the universally accepted geocentric system. Even more interesting, and totally frustrating for historians of astronomy, he gives absolutely no indication whatsoever how or why he came to adopt this radical step in order to rescue the uniform circular motion axiom. Copernicus’ assumptions (axioms) read as follows:
1: There is no one center of all the celestial circles or spheres.
That there is, is one of the fundamental axioms of Aristotelian cosmology
2: The center of the earth is not the center of the universe, but only of gravity and the lunar sphere
That the earth is the centre of the universe is another of the Aristotelian axioms
3: All the spheres revolve about the sun as their mid-point, and therefore the sun is the center of the universe.
Bombshell lobed without comment!
4: The ratio of the earth’s distance from the sun to the height of the firmament is so much smaller than the ratio of the earth’s radius to its distance from the sun that the distance from the earth to the sun is imperceptible in comparison with the height of the firmament.
Copernicus needs this assumption to explain the lack of observable stellar parallax. Much is made of Copernicus’ vast increase in the size of the cosmos in comparison to Ptolemaeus. However in the Almagest Ptolemaeus states, “Moreover, the earth has, to the senses, the ratio of a point to the distance of the sphere of the so-called fixed stars.” Even Ptolemaeus’ cosmos is in principle unimaginably large.
5: Whatever motion appears in the firmament arises not from any motion of the firmament, but from the earth’s motion. The earth together with its circumjacent elements performs a complete rotation on its fixed poles in a daily motion, while the firmament and highest heaven abide unchanged.
The concept of diurnal rotation, the earth’s daily rotation about its own axis, had been hypothesised on many occasions throughout the history of astronomy as I explained in an earlier blog post. Copernicus would call upon some of those earlier examples as support for his own views in De revolutionibus. More interesting is the phrase “together with its circumjacent elements”, where Copernicus is basically saying that the earth carries its atmosphere with it when it rotates. This counters some of the arguments already listed by Ptolemaeus against diurnal rotation. The problem for Early Modern supporters of heliocentricity or simply diurnal rotation is they lacked the physics to explain how the earth could carry its atmosphere with in on its daily spin. We will return to this topic in a later episode.
6: What appear to us as motions of the sun arise not from its motion but from the motion of the earth and our sphere, with which we revolve around the sun like any other planet. The earth has, then, more than one motion.
The first sentence merely confirms the consequences of a heliocentric model. The second states another break with the Aristotelian axioms. According to Aristotle celestial bodies have just one type of natural motion, uniform circular motion and the earth also has just one type of natural motion upward or downward perpendicular to the earth’s surface.
7: The apparent retrograde and direct motion of the planets arises not from their motion but from the earth’s. The motion of the earth alone, therefore, suffices to explain so many apparent inequalities in the heavens.
This last assumption is, of course, the biggest selling point for the adoption of a heliocentric system but in the debates following the publication of De revolutionibus, the other arguments against heliocentricity weighed so heavily that this explanation for retrograde planetary motion got largely ignored.
Second page of the Stockholm manuscript with the assumptions Source: Wikimedia Commons
Copernicus now begins to fill in the details:
Having set forth these assumptions, I shall endeavor briefly to show how uniformity of the motions can be saved in a systematic way. However I have thought it well, for the sake of brevity, to omit from this sketch mathematical demonstrations…
Once again we have a confirmation that Copernicus’ main interest, as he sees it, is to restore the uniform circular motion axiom. I shall not into detail about the rest but the section headings are:
The Order of the Spheres
The Apparent Motion of the Sun
Equal Motion Should Be Measured Not by the Equinoxes but by the Fixed Stars
The Three Superior Planets Saturn–Jupiter–Mars
Of interest here is that some of the epicycle-deferent models he outlines here differ from those that he would later develop for De revolutionibus indicating that this is an initial concept that would undergo development in the following thirty plus years, although he announces his intention to produce a larger more detailed work in the sentence I broke off above:
However I have thought it well, for the sake of brevity, to omit from this sketch mathematical demonstration, reserving these for my larger work.
We have no idea how many copies of the Commentariolus Copernicus made and distributed or how many further copies were made by others. As I have indicated above there is circumstantial evidence that it was read but the lack of any direct mentions before the publication of De revolutionibus, plus the fact that there seems to have been no heliocentricity debate triggered by it, as opposed to the debate triggered by Fracastoro’s Homocentrica (1538),and a couple of other contemporary published texts on the homocentric spheres model, indicate that the Commentariolus had very little impact on the sixteenth-century astronomical community.
3 Copernican Treatises: The Commentariolus of Copernicus, The Letter Against Werner, The Narratio Prima of Rheticus, Translated with Introduction, Notes and Bibliography by Edward Rosen, Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 1959 pp. 57-58
Copernicus/Rosen pp. 58-59
Ptolemy’s AlmagestTranslated and Annotated by G. J. Toomer, Princeton University Press, Princeton New Jersey, ppb. 1998 p. 43
Copernicus/Rosen p. 59
Copernicus/Rosen pp. 59-90
Copernicus/Rosen p. 59