This is a post about history in general but it applies just as much to the history of science. I have over the years written several posts about the problems of attributing nationalities or even countries of origins to historical figures and this post discusses another example of this, where the attributions are about ahistorical as you can get. What is it this time that has piqued my ire? It was the title of an article in The Guardian that contains historical attributions that are ahistorical, anachronistic and quite frankly xenophobic.
Strong words, strong claims, so what is wrong with this title? The article is about the spread into Britain from the continent of the so-called Beaker folk, a European wide Neolithic-Bronze Age culture that existed from around 2900 BCE to 1800 BCE. Archaeologists and prehistorians define cultures through characteristic behaviours or artefacts. The Beaker culture is so named because of the habit of burying their dead with distinctive ceramic pots or beakers. This cultural group moved into Britain around 2500 BCE and the article claims that DNA analysis has shown that the previous inhabitants disappear out of the genetic record to be replaced by the newcomers. All well and good so what’s my beef?
First off, the title suggests that the original population were killed off by invading Europeans but the previous population were, like the Beaker people, themselves European immigrants, as had and have been all of the inhabitants of the British Isles. It is not known when exactly the Neolithic culture that started building Stonehenge arrived in Britain but they were with certainty not Britons! One moment there! If they are living in Britain they are Britons, right? Wrong!
The name Britons for inhabitants of this island derives from the reports of the fourth-century Greek explorer Pytheas of Massalia (that’s Marseille). Pytheas supposedly circumnavigated the island and referred to its inhabitants as Pretani and the island as Prettanikē; these are the origins of the words Briton and Britain. The words he is using are thought to be transliterations into Greek of the names used by the inhabitants that Pytheas met, who are not even Beaker people but members of a later wave of immigrants the Celts. We don’t have a name for the Neolithic folk who started building Stonehenge but they were not Britons.
We have the same problem with the Beaker people being called Dutch in the title. There were settlements of the Beaker people all over Europe but they thought to have originated in what is now Spain. The group that crossed the Channel onto the British Island are said by the historical geneticists to have come from what is now the Northern Netherlands but that in no way makes them Dutch.
The Dutch are, like the English, a Low German dialect speaking Germanic folk. They originated in what is today Southern Scandinavia and Northern Germany and because of climate change moved southwards into the Netherlands between 850 and 750 BCE so once again long after the Beaker culture had died out.
What we actually have is one wave of immigrants from the European continent being supplanted by another wave of immigrants from the European continent. The former are not Britons and the latter are not Dutch and to claim that they were, is a massive historical distortion and has, as I said at the beginning a strong stench of xenophobia. The British Isles has on and off, since about 42,000 years BP (before the present), been occupied by successive waves of immigrants from the European continent the last being the Normans, a Norse culture residing in France, in 1066 CE.
Almost all areas in the world have similar histories of habitation and historians or people writing historical articles should be very, very careful when attaching labels to peoples or geographical areas in their writings.