I (almost) live in the town of Erlangen in Franconia, in Southern Germany. Erlangen is a university town with an official population of about 110 000. I say official because Erlangen has a fairly large number of inhabitants, mostly student, who are registered as living elsewhere with Erlangen as their second place of residence, who are not included in the official population numbers. I suspect that the population actually lies somewhere between 120 and 130 000. Erlangen is dominated by the university, which currently has 40 000 students, although several departments are in the neighbouring towns of Furth and Nürnberg, and is thus the second largest university in Bavaria, and the company Siemens. Siemens, one of Germany’s largest industrial firms, is a worldwide concern and Erlangen is after Berlin and Munich the third largest Siemens centre in Germany, home to large parts of the company’s research and development. It is the home of Siemens’ medical technology branch, Siemens being a world leader in this field. 13 December is the two hundredth anniversary of the birth of Werner von Siemens the founder of the company.
Werner Siemens (the von came later in his life) was born in Lenthe near Hanover the fourth child of fourteenth children of the farmer Christian Ferdinand Siemens and his wife Eleonore Henriette Deichmann on13 December 1894. The family was not wealthy and Werner was forced to end his education early. In 1835 he joined the artillery corps of Prussian Army in order to get an education in science and engineering; he graduated as a lieutenant in 1838.
He was sentenced to five years in military prison for acting as a second in a duel but was pardoned in 1842 and took up his military service. Whilst still in the army he developed an improved version of Wheatstone’s and Cooke’s electrical telegraph in 1846 and persuaded the Prussian Army to give his system field trials in 1847. Having proved the effectiveness of his system Siemens patented it and in the same year founded together with the fine mechanic Johann Georg Halske the Telegraphen-Bauanstalt von Siemens & Halske. They received a commission to construct Prussia’s first electrical telegraph line from Berlin to Frankfurt, which was completed in 1849, when Werner left the army to become an electrical engineer and entrepreneur. The profession of electrical engineer didn’t exist yet and Werner Siemens is regarded as one of its founders.
Already a successful electrical telegraph construction company the next major step came when Werner discovered the principle of dynamo self-excitation in 1867, which enabled the construction of the worlds first practical electric generators. Werner was not alone in making this discovery. The Hungarian Anyos Jedlik discovered it already in 1856 but didn’t patent it and his discovery remained unknown and unexploited. The Englishman Samuel Alfred Avery patented a self-exciting dynamo in 1866, one year ahead of both Siemens and Charles Wheatstone who also independently made the same discovery.
Throughout his life Werner Siemens combined the best attributes of a scientists, an engineer, an inventor and an entrepreneur constantly pushing the range of his companies products. He developed the use of gutta-percha as material for cable insolation, Siemens laying the first German transatlantic telegraph cable with their own specially constructed cable laying ship The Faraday in 1874. The world’s first electric railway followed in 1879, the world’s first electric tram in 1881 and the world’s first trolleybus in 1882.
Werner Siemens was a great believer in scientific research and donated 500,000 Marks (a fortune), in land and cash, in 1884 towards the establishment of the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt a state scientific research institute, which finally came into being in 1887 and lives on today under the name Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). From the very beginning Werner Siemens thought in international terms sending his brother Wilhelm off to London in 1852 to represent the company and another brother Carl to St Petersburg in 1853, where Siemens built Russia’s first telegraph network. In 1867 Halske left the company and Carl and Wilhelm became partners making Siemens a family company. In 1888, four years before his death, Werner was ennobled becoming Werner von Siemens.
The research and development department of Siemens moved to Erlangen after the Second World War, as their home in Berlin became an island surrounded by the Russian occupation zone. Erlangen was probably chosen because it was already the home of Siemens’ medical technology section. In order to understand how this came to be in Erlangen we need to go back to the nineteenth century and the live story of Erwin Moritz Reiniger.
Reiniger born 5 April 154 in Stuttgart was employed as an experiment demonstrator at the University of Erlangen in 1876. He was also responsible for the repair of technical equipment in the university institutes and clinics. Realising that this work could become highly profitable, Reiniger set up as a self-employed fine mechanic in Schlossplatz 3 next door to the university administration in the Schloss (palace) in 1877, producing fine mechanical, physical, optical and simple electro-medical instruments.
By 1885 Reiniger was employing fifteen workers. In 1886 he went into partnership with the mechanics Max Gebbert and Karl Friedrich Schall forming the Vereinigte physikalisch-mechanische Werkstätten von Reiniger, Gebbert & Schall– Erlangen, New York, Stuttgart (RGS). The workshops in New York and Stuttgart were soon abandoned and the company concentrated on Erlangen. Karl Schall left the company in 1888 and Reiniger was bought out by Gebbert in 1895.
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen discovered X-rays on 8 November 1895 and published his discovery in three scientific papers between then and January 1896.
Famously he didn’t patent his discovery and RGS were already, as the very first company in the world, producing X-ray tubes and X-ray machines in 1896 and this would become the mainstay of their business. There is a rather sweet letter in the Siemens archive from Röntgen, who was professor in Würzburg, not too far away from Erlangen, asking if he could possibly get a rebate if he purchased his X-ray tubes from RGS.
Following the First World War, RGS got into financially difficulties due to bad management and in 1925 the company was bought by Siemens & Halske, who transferred their own medical technology production to Erlangen thus establishing the medical technology division of Siemens in Erlangen where it still is today. Originally called the Siemens-Reiniger-Werke AG it has gone through more name changes than I care to remember currently being called ‘Healthineers’ to the amusement of the local population, who on the whole find the name ridiculous.
What of the future? Last week saw the laying of the foundation stone of the new Siemens Campus in Erlangen a 500 million Euro building project to provide Siemens with a new R&D centre for the twenty-first century.
 I actually live in a small village on the outskirts of Erlangen but the town boundary is about 150 metres, as the crow flies, from where I am sitting typing this post.