Not an expert

BBC Radio 4 has a series called Great Lives, which is presented by former Conservative MP and now journalist, writer and broadcaster Matthew Parris. On the programme a ‘lay person’ talks about a figure, usually from history, who is their hero or role model, their comments being filled out by an ‘expert’ on the life of the figure in question. The format is in the form of a light-hearted three-way chat. Three years ago the BBC DJ Bobby Friction chose Galileo Galilei as his Great Life. At the time I listened and not surprisingly found the programme cringe worthy, dismissed it and forgot about it. However over the weekend people, who should know better, were promoting the programme on social media. Against my better judgement I listened to the whole thing again and decided to write this brief post on just one aspect, the greatest historical blunder, of the programme.

Before turning to the main topic of this post there is an aspect of the programme that needs to be addressed first. As explained above the discussion always includes an ‘expert’ to fill out with facts the account given of the subject of the programme. A programme about Galileo, so we can expect a historian of science as expert, yes? No! Instead of a historian of science what we get is Dr David Berman a reader in theoretical physic from Queen Mary College London. This is unfortunately a very common habit amongst journalists and broadcasters. They want someone to comment on, or explicate some aspect of, or episode out of the history of science, they ask a scientist and not a historian of science. Whilst I’m quite happy to acknowledge that there are some scientists who are also competent historians of science, they are unfortunately a small minority. The majority of scientists when asked to talk about the history of their subject usually deliver something highly inaccurate, factually false and toe curlingly cringe worthy. David Berman is no exception. As I wrote above, I’m not going to waste my time, and yours, doing a blow by blow analysis of this sorry mess but just address the one truly glaring clangour that our so-called expert drops towards the end of the discussion.

In an exchange beginning at about 22.20mins we hear the following:

MP: But he was friends with the Pope, why didn’t the Pope stick up for him?

DB: Oh, so he was friends with Urban VII who was the Pope, who was around the time when he started the book and the original censor but by then he died and we had Urban VIII…

He we have the classic example of a so-called expert who has literally no idea what he’s talking about and just makes something up that he thinks sounds plausible. For those that don’t know their papal history and/or the story of Galileo’s interaction with the papacy I will explain.

Paul V (1552–1621) was the Pope (1605–1621) who set up the commission of theologians in 1616 to consider the status of heliocentricity, which ruled it “foolish and absurd in philosophy, and formally heretical since it explicitly contradicts in many places the sense of Holy Scripture”. He then instructed Cardinal Bellarmine to meet with Galileo and to inform him that he was no longer allowed to teach the truth of heliocentricity.

Pope Paul V by Caravaggio. Source: Wikimedia Commons

Pope Paul V by Caravaggio.
Source: Wikimedia Commons

Both Bellarmine and Paul, however, assured Galileo that he was, at this time, in no personal danger. Paul died in 1621 and was succeeded by Gregory XV (1554–1623) who as Pope (1621–1623) played no significant role in the life of Galileo.

Pope Gregory XV Source: Wikimedia Commons

Pope Gregory XV
Source: Wikimedia Commons

Gregory was succeeded in 1623 by Cardinal Maffeo Barberini (1568–1644) who became Urban VIII.

Circa 1598 painting of Maffeo Barberini at age 30 by Caravaggio. Source: Wikimedia Commons

Circa 1598 painting of Maffeo Barberini at age 30 by Caravaggio.
Source: Wikimedia Commons

Those of you wondering where Urban VII fits into this, he doesn’t. Giovanni Battista Castagna (1521–1590) ruled as Pope Urban VII for just twelve days between 15 and 27 September 1590, when Galileo was just beginning his career as professor for mathematics in Pisa. Urban VII’s twelve-day papacy was the shortest in history.

Pope Urban VII – Pope for Twelve Days Source: Wikimedia Commons

Pope Urban VII – Pope for Twelve Days
Source: Wikimedia Commons

As an additional comment no Pope was ever the censor, as claimed by Berman, but naturally employed others to do this work for the Church.

As Matthew Parris rightly claims Cardinal Maffeo Barberini had been a friend and supporter of Galileo’s since the publication of the Sidereus nuncius in 1610 as well as being a patron of the Accademia dei Lincei, the small elite scientific society that had elected Galileo a member in 1611 on the strength of his telescopic discoveries. It was also the Lincei who gave the telescope its name. When Barberini was elected Pope in 1623 the Lincei published a broadsheet celebrating his election, which contained the first every illustrations made with a microscope.

Accademia dei Lincei Flyer celebrating the elevation of Maffeo Barberini to Pope 1623 Stelutii Melissographia

Accademia dei Lincei Flyer celebrating the elevation of Maffeo Barberini to Pope 1623
Stelutii Melissographia

The Lincei also published Galileo’s Il Saggiatore (The Assayer), which was dedicated to the new Pope in 1623.

Title page Il Saggiatore !623 Source: Wikimedia Commons

Title page Il Saggiatore !623
Source: Wikimedia Commons

Barberini much enjoyed Il Saggiatore and showed Galileo much favour. Galileo grasped the opportunity and persuaded the Pope to let him write a book describing the geocentric and heliocentric systems to prove that the Catholics did not favour the former out of ignorance of the latter, as he claimed the Protestants were alleging. Urban agreed to his request but under the condition that the two systems were presented equally without bias and without favouring either.

A portrait of Pope Urban VIII by Pietro da Cortona (1627) Source: Wikimedia Commons

A portrait of Pope Urban VIII
by Pietro da Cortona (1627)
Source: Wikimedia Commons

The book that Galileo wrote, his Dialogo, a polemic masterpiece, was of course anything but unbiased, tilting the arguments so far that any reader would be led to the conclusion that the heliocentric system was vastly superior to the geocentric one; a claim for which he had no empirical proof. He topped the whole thing off by putting the Pope’s own thoughts on the subject, a direct quote, into the mouth of a figure who was close to being a simpleton at the climax of the book.

Frontispiece and title page of the Dialogo, 1632 Source: Wikimedia Commons

Frontispiece and title page of the Dialogo, 1632
Source: Wikimedia Commons

That Urban was pissed off by the results should not have come as a surprise to Galileo and things took their inevitable course. The motto of the story is don’t play your friend for a fool when he happens to be an all powerful absolutist ruler.

9 Comments

Filed under History of Astronomy, Renaissance Science

9 responses to “Not an expert

  1. Pingback: Not an expert – dohalu

  2. Haha. Keep those blood pressure pills handy.
    Mind you, whenever I hear a noted relativist narrate some Einstein story that is factually inaccurate, a part of me is always secretly pleased – I feel it justifies the sort of research my group does. Indeed, I notice my opinion is beginning to be sought on such matters by people who have a far better understanding of Einstein’s theories than I ever will, a nice feeling.
    But you’re right – the interview was the usual media problem of mistaking expertise in one area for expertise in another

  3. I bought a (reduced price) copy of Evans’ & Clegg’s “10 Physicists who transformed our understanding of reality” at the weekend. As they include both Galileo and Newton in their list, I shall be looking to see how many errors they make as a way of judging who good the rest of the book is.

  4. Pinkiguana

    Thony, the correct name of the Pope is BARBERINI! And the book you mention : DIALOGO SOPRA I DUE MASSIMI SISTEMI DEL MONDO written in 1600 italian, is considered at the moment, a masterpiece of Italian Literature!
    Ciao!

    • Written in Tuscan rather than Italian. ;))

      • Thony, I think you know Dante Alighieri…He was the Father of our Language…he was Tuscan, so Italian comes from tuscan vernacular! this in XIV Century! But In XVII Century the language used by Galileo in his DIALOGO was Italian, an old Italian, very difficult to understand (for example by my students)…but a magnificent text to read!
        I don’t know if you understand Italian Language…this is Sagredo (Galileo) speaking:
        ” Aviamo dunque da i discorsi di questi 4 giorni grandi attestazioni a favor del sistema Copernicano; tra le quali queste tre, prese, la prima, dalle stazioni e retrogradazioni de i pianeti e da i loro accostamenti e allontanamenti dalla Terra, la seconda dalla revoluzion del Sole in se stesso e da quello che nelle sue macchie si osserva, la terza da i flussi e reflussi del mare, si mostrano assai concludenti” THIS IS ITALIAN!

        Thony.. I’m an admirer of you and of your posts !…
        But…
        I have a personal question for you! Do my comments irritate you?
        are you annoying by me? Tell me and I will go away!
        Because I see that you simply ignore me or attack me!

        Remember that I will no longer talk with an unkind briton!

        Have a good evening

        Patrizia

      • “favella tuscana” as Galileo called his written language.

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