Category Archives: Odds and Ends

AAARRRGGGHHHHH……

Crunch, Crunch, Crunch, Crunch, Crunch,…

That’s the sound of me banging my head against a concrete wall to relieve the pain I suffered on reading the latest pearl of wisdom that world famous astrophysicist and science communicator Neil deGrasse Tyson imparted to his 1, 228, 112 adoring acolytes on Twitter.

Not that anybody asked, but the symbol “lb” for pound comes from an abbreviation of the constellation Libra, the scales. Neil deGrasse Tyson (@neiltyson)

This is the sort of comment, which if made by one of his students, my twitter friend @grummpyhistorian tweets with a hash tag such as #epicetymologicalfail.

The Latin word libra has two meanings it is both the Roman standard unit of weight (approx. 327g) as well as a balance or set of scales. It is the former that is the origin of the abbreviation lb for pound, the standard unit of weight in the imperial system, and the latter, which supplied the name of the constellation. It is of course also the former that is the origin of the £ symbol for the pound unit of money, originally a pound or libra of some precious metal. This, if my memory serves me correctly, however comes into English via the French word for pound, livre. Instead of lb we might have had pf as abbreviation for the pound from the German word Pfund.

As to the asterism it would appear that it was the Babylonian who first called it a balance as explained here by Ian Ridpath in his excellent book Star Tales:

Now there has been a lot of deriding and decrying of the humanities and their usefulness or lack there of in recent times but if Neil deGrasse Tyson had paid a little more attention to the humanities in his education he might not have put his foot straight into his mouth when he opened it. He could have saved me a lot of mental pain if he had a) learnt some Latin or b) read an etymological dictionary or c) consulted the much-maligned Wikipedia anyone of which would have prevented him from exposing himself as an ignoramus, a Latin term meaning, “we do not know”.

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Carnivalesque #93 Pre-Modern History with Added Cats

Hello I’m the Renaissance Mathematicus and actually I’m a historian of science and this blog is normally mostly about the history of the mathematical sciences mostly in the Early Modern Period. However as far as I’m concerned a historian of science is also just a historian, a point of view not shared by some historians of science, and so just for a change I’m hosting Carnivalesque the blog carnival for pre-modern history.

Now I’m a trained archaeologist and spent several happy years digging up various bits of Britain and I’m also the son of a pre-historian so for me archaeology and pre-history are also pre-modern history. With this in mind I’ve been collecting blog post that I found interesting since Sharon hosted Carnivalesque #92 in January and the list has got somewhat gargantuan and completely unmanageable, so I didn’t even try.

Look through the list and if a blog post title catches your imagination then click and read! You won’t be disappointed they’re all good!

Now as all denizens of the Intertubes know they real secret of cyberspace success is cats. If your blog post has cats then it’s a guaranteed runner. With this in mind Carnivalesque #93 has added cats! For those who only read cat posts the feline section closes out the list and at the request of co-host Sascha who says, “dogs are much better than cats” begins with medieval dogs.

Carnivalesque #94 will be hosted by the many-headed monster in April. Nominations can be made either direct to the host of through the nominations form here.

Pompeii “Wall Posts” Reveal Ancient Social Networks

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=pompeii-wall-posts-show&WT.mc_id=SA_sharetool_Twitter

Christine de Pizan in her Study

http://www.medievalists.net/2013/01/20/christine-de-pizan-in-her-study/

Toothy Tumor Found in 1,600-Year-Old Roman Corpse

http://www.livescience.com/26446-toothy-tumor-ancient-roman-corpse.html …

Medieval warfare had well-organised ‘ransom market’

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-21168437

‘Weird’ remedies and the problem of ‘folklore’

http://dralun.wordpress.com/2013/01/24/weird-remedies-and-the-problem-of-folklore/

A French-Peruvian-Spanish team discovers a chamber in Machu Picchu

http://www.heritagedaily.com/2013/01/a-french-peruvian-spanish-team-discovers-a-chamber-in-machu-picchu/

Review: Emotion and Cognitive Life in Medieval and Early Modern Philosophy

http://emotionsblog.history.qmul.ac.uk/?p=2259

Fishbourne Roman Palace pottery ‘was toilet paper’

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-21204228

Technology and autonomous mechanisms in the mediterranean from Ancient Greece to Byzantium

http://historyoftheancientworld.com/2013/01/technology-and-autonomous-mechanisms-in-the-mediterranean-from-ancient-greece-to-byzantium/

The Art of Swimming

http://bibliodyssey.blogspot.de/2013/01/the-art-of-swimming.html

The Royal Amour Workshops at Greenwich

http://earlymodernengland.com/2013/01/the-royal-armour-workshops-at-greenwich/

The Recipe Collection of the Last Medici Princess

http://recipes.hypotheses.org/788

Mourning Coffee

http://afternoon-tease.blogspot.de/p/mourning-coffee.html?m=0

The Mystery of Curry

http://www.slate.com/articles/life/food/2013/01/indus_civilization_food_how_scientists_are_figuring_out_what_curry_was_like.single.html

Margaret Stewart of Scotland, Dauphine of France

http://thefreelancehistorywriter.com/2013/01/31/margaret-stewart-of-scotland-dauphine-of-france/

It is Richard III: ‘beyond reasonable doubt’

http://www.medievalists.net/2013/02/04/it-is-richard-iii-beyond-reasonable-doubt/

Archaic Native Americans built massive Louisiana mound in less than 90 days

http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.de/2013/01/archaic-native-americans-built-massive.html#.URAQQKXRfdk

35 Ancient Pyramids Discovered in Sudan Necropolis

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=35-ancient-pyramids-discovered

Alexander the Great and the Rain of Burning Sand

http://www.wondersandmarvels.com/2013/02/alexander-the-great-and-the-rain-of-burning-sand.html

Ice Age Art: Arrival of the Modern Mind

http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?sectioncode=26&storycode=422625&c=2

The Regular Canons and the Use of Food c. 1200 – 1350

http://www.medievalists.net/2013/01/31/the-regular-canons-and-the-use-of-food-c-1200-1350/

Listening to the Book: Medieval Music Manuscripts

http://medievalfragments.wordpress.com/2013/02/08/listening-to-the-book-medieval-music-manuscripts/

Virtual Autopsy: explore a natural mummy from early Egypt

http://www.britishmuseum.org/whats_on/exhibitions/virtual_autopsy.aspx

Late surviving pterosaur

http://palaeo-electronica.org/content/2013/384-late-surviving-pterosaur

My first year on Twitter: How I became @erik_kwakkel

http://medievalfragments.wordpress.com/2013/01/18/my-first-year-on-twitter-how-i-became-erik_kwakkel/

The European No. 3 Johann Gutenberg

http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/features/2013/0116/1224328895936.html

On Pins and Needles: Stylist Turns Ancient Hairdo Debate on its Head

http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324900204578286272195339456.html

Silent Voices in History: The Searchers of the Dead

http://thechirurgeonsapprentice.com/2013/02/11/silent-voices-in-history-the-searchers-of-the-dead/

The Last Time a Pope Resigned Mass Media was Called…Mass

http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/02/the-last-time-a-pope-resigned-mass-media-was-called-mass/273098/

Eat Your Heart Out

http://ancientrecipes.wordpress.com/2013/02/13/eat-your-heart-out/

The Little French Renaissance Book of Love

http://www.thehistoryblog.com/archives/23520

Syphilis, Misogyny, and Witchcraft in 16th Century Europe

http://www.medievalists.net/2013/02/19/syphilis-misogyny-and-witchcraft-in-16th-century-europe/

Romeo and the Apothecary

http://earlymodernengland.com/2013/02/romeo-and-the-apothecary/

Beowulf Online

http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/digitisedmanuscripts/2013/02/beowulf-online.html

A 13th Century Tally Stick

https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.616806358335661.150440.200441529972148&type=1

An Environmental History of the Middle Ages: The Crucible of Nature

http://www.medievalists.net/2013/02/16/an-environmental-history-of-the-middle-ages-the-crucible-of-nature/

Mystery of Henry IV’s missing head divides France

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/feb/16/mystery-of-kings-head-divides-france

Elizabeth Tanfield Cary 1598 manuscript published

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-oxfordshire-21492230

Why Yes

http://theweaselking.livejournal.com/4374320.html

Merlin: International man of mystery

http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/digitisedmanuscripts/2013/02/merlin-international-man-of-mystery.html

What was the Investiture Controversy a Controversy About?

http://www.medievalists.net/2013/02/19/what-was-the-investiture-controversy-a-controversy-about/

Ignorance and Experience: An Illuminator’s Trajectory

http://my-albion.blogspot.no/2012/05/ignorance-and-experience-illuminators.html

Israel Antiquities Authority: An ancient industrial installation was revealed beneath the asphalt in Yafo

http://www.artdaily.com/index.asp?int_sec=2&int_new=60888#.USfUKKXRfdk

The History of Libraries Through the Ages

http://www.zencollegelife.com/the-history-of-libraries-through-the-ages/

Goose Quills and Iron Gall Ink

http://clerestories.com/2013/02/26/early-modern-handwriting/

For Valentine’s Day: The 17th Century Method for Knowing When Your Heart is Broken

http://jenshermanroberts.wordpress.com/2013/02/14/for-valentines-day-the-17th-century-method-for-knowing-when-your-heart-is-broken/

Behold, the Kindle of the 16th Century

http://m.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/02/behold-the-kindle-of-the-16th-century/273577/

Byzantine wine press discovered in Jaffa

http://www.medievalists.net/2013/02/27/byzantine-wine-press-discovered-in-jaffa/

Oranges and Lemons

http://ancientrecipes.wordpress.com/#sthash.fX3x08vw.dpuf

How to see naked people in Renaissance Italy

http://renresearch.wordpress.com/2013/02/28/how-to-see-people-naked-in-renaissance-italy/

Time and Motion Studies

http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?sectioncode=26&storycode=422791&c=1&buffer_share=258cf&utm_source=buffer

Myths and Mandrakes

http://www.medievalists.net/2013/03/04/myths-and-mandrakes/

Mussolini looks at Jan Hus and the Bohemian Reformation

http://www.medievalists.net/2013/01/20/mussolini-looks-at-jan-hus-and-the-bohemian-reformation/

Gamma ray burst hit earth in 8th century

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-21082617#?utm_source=twitterfeed&utm_medium=twitter

150 Mexican Skulls that reveal the largest mass sacrifice in the region’s bloody history

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2269664/Trove-skulls-discovered-Mexico-largest-mass-sacrifice-regions-bloody-history.html#axzz2JqqIUaNt

Animals in Medieval Sports, Entertainment and Menageries

http://www.medievalists.net/2013/02/03/animals-in-medieval-sports-entertainment-and-menageries/

When Taking Multiple Husbands Make Sense

http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2013/02/when-taking-multiple-husbands-makes-sense/272726/

Carved medieval head in Wexford

https://twitter.com/irarchaeology/status/298883455784210433/photo/1

Famed Warrior Medici Died from Gangrene

http://news.discovery.com/history/archaeology/mystery-over-renaissance-warriors-amputation-solved-130116.htm

Ice Age Art

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=McYem7Qz9AI&feature=youtu.be

The Dumb Proctor of Lochwinnoch

http://earlymedievalgovan.wordpress.com/2013/02/14/the-dumb-proctor-of-lochwinnoch/

Briton finds 500 year old arrest warrant for Machiavelli

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/italy/9871527/Briton-finds-500-year-old-arrest-warrant-for-Machiavelli.html

Roman Bones in Istanbul

http://www.timeslive.co.za/travel/2013/02/17/the-big-read-roman-bones-in-istanbul

The Ice-age flute can play The Star-Spangled Banner

http://www.guardian.co.uk/music/2013/feb/15/ice-age-flute

Memeing the Early Modern: Danse Harlem Shake Macabre #WoodcutWednesday

http://senseshaper.wordpress.com/2013/02/27/memeing-the-early-modern-danse-harlem-shake-macabre-woodcutwednesday/

From the wtf department a rotating book server designed during the renaissance recreated and mis-built by architecture students destroyed by terrorists

http://www.core77.com/blog/furniture_design/from_the_wtf_department_a_rotating_book_server_designed_during_the_renaissance_recreated_and_mis-built_by_architecture_students_destroyed_by_terrorists_24448.asp

So, what did the Romans do for us?

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/archaeology/news/so-what-did-the-romans-do-for-us-new-digs-reveal-truth-about-hadrians-wall-8517925.html

In Praise of Small Data

http://burnablebooks.com/in-praise-of-small-data/

It’s the Manuscript Stupid

http://burnablebooks.com/its-the-manuscripts-stupid/

Thinking Big About Medieval Data

http://fredgibbs.net/blog/medieval-studies/thinking-big-about-medieval-data/

Eighteenth-century DIY

http://recipes.hypotheses.org/988

Have some ginger dear

http://ancientrecipes.wordpress.com/2013/03/01/have-some-ginger-dear/

Pilau eighteenth-century style

http://recipes.hypotheses.org/836

REED all about it III: Some musings on music and the micro-politics of Sabbath-breaking in Jacobethan Lancashire

http://manyheadedmonster.wordpress.com/2013/01/30/reed-all-about-it-iii-some-musings-on-music-and-the-micropolitics-of-sabbath-breaking-in-jacobethan-lancashire/

Next Pope what happens now?

http://hnn.us/articles/next-pope-what-happens-now

Diadems are forever

http://judithweingarten.blogspot.ca/2013/02/diadems-are-forever.html

I blame Gerald of Wales

http://www.inthemedievalmiddle.com/2013/02/i-blame-gerald-of-wales.html

Sealed with a Roman Kiss

http://phdiva.blogspot.ca/2013/02/sarah-bond-sealed-with-roman-kiss.html

Vile-Hearted Renaissance Peckerhead oft he Month: January

http://jenshermanroberts.wordpress.com/2013/01/31/vile-hearted-renaissance-peckerhead-of-the-month-january/

Baby Bones Were Trash to Romans

http://www.poweredbyosteons.org/2013/01/baby-bones-were-trash-to-romans.html

PTSD in Antiquity

http://phdiva.blogspot.ca/2013/01/ptsd-in-antiquity.html

Concussion and PTSD in the Ancient World

http://ancientimes.blogspot.ca/2013/01/concussion-and-ptsd-in-ancient-world.html

The Tale of the Leather Asses: Numa Pompilius and Leather Coinage

http://phdiva.blogspot.ca/2013/01/sarah-bond-tale-of-leather-asses-numa.html

The History of Menstruation

http://www.wondersandmarvels.com/2013/02/the-history-of-menstruation.html

HERE BE CATS!

Nothin’ but a Hound Dog

http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/digitisedmanuscripts/2013/02/nothin-but-a-hound-dog.html

Lolcats in the Middle Ages

http://britishlibrary.typepad.co.uk/digitisedmanuscripts/2013/01/lolcats-of-the-middle-ages.html

1 Kitty, 2 Empires, 2000 Years: World History Told through a Brick

http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/02/1-kitty-2-empires-2-000-years-world-history-told-through-a-brick/273320/

A Rocket Cat? Early Modern Explosives Treatises at Penn.

http://uniqueatpenn.wordpress.com/2013/02/05/a-rocket-cat-early-modern-explosives-treatises-at-penn/

Of Cats and Manuscripts

http://theappendix.net/blog/2013/3/of-cats-and-manuscripts

Grumpy Cat Responds to the Medieval Cat–Print Manuscript

http://senseshaper.wordpress.com/2013/02/20/grumpy-cat-responds-to-erik-kwakkels-cat-paw-manuscript/

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It’s just a question of words

I wrote this piece sometime ago but for some reason never got round to posting it, possibly because I think it really needs expanding. However the years I have spent studying both the philosophy of mathematics and the philosophy of science have convinced me that an expanded version of this answer would become a fairly substantial book; a book I have no real desire to write. I have chosen to post this piece now because the Irish student of philosophy Cathy who inhabits my twitter stream as @Cathyby recently posed the question dealt with here, so Cathy my answer to your query.

I want to turn my attention to a question that has bothered me whenever I have met it in one form or another in the intertubes, “is mathematics a science?” Usually one meets the question in the form of a denial, “but that’s mathematics and that’s not a science”. I have deliberately not chosen this question as title for this post because I don’t think it’s actually a legitimate question as it’s based on a mistaken idea of what science is.

The question that I shall be considering here cannot be asked in German or rather it would be rather strange. In German each academic discipline is a Wissenschaft. Wissen is the German for knowledge and the suffix “shaft” is equivalent to the English suffix “hood” as in neighbourhood or brotherhood and functions as a collective for everything that falls under the concept, so Wissenschaft is everything that falls under the concept knowledge. It is interesting in this context to remind ourselves that both the Latin word scientia and the Greek word mathema also originally meant knowledge. German differentiates between the different types of knowledge so the closest it gets to the common English understanding of the word science is Naturwissenschaft, which however can be translated as the natural sciences and this brings us to what I consider to be the crux of the problem.

All those who vehemently deny the status of science to mathematics have a very limited concept or view of what constitutes science. They believe there is one thing called science that employs something called “the” scientific method. What they actually mean is physics or the physical sciences. Contrary to what these people think there is no monolithic scientific method but rather a fairly large set of related and similar methods that are employed in different branches of the sciences. What constitutes a test for a hypothesis in biology is not necessarily the same as that which constitutes a test for a hypothesis in physics. This is actually tacitly recognised in that we group the sciences according to the subject matter that they investigate and the methodology that they use. We differentiate between the physical sciences, the life sciences, the earth sciences, the social sciences and so on and so forth. Each group delivers its own form of knowledge conform to the subject matter of its investigations.

Mathematics belongs together with informatics (computer science) and formal or symbolic logic to the formal sciences or in German die Formalwissenschaften. These sciences are distinguished by the fact that their true statements are true as a result of their form and not their content, in all three we talk about well-formed statements. Like physics or biology mathematics delivers knowledge and as such is without question a science but it is a different type of science to physics or biology, which in turn also differ from one another.

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The Renaissance Mathematicus Roadshow

Next week the Renaissance Mathematicus will be undertaking a mini-tour of Berlin to hold two semi-popular public lectures, in German. Actually it’s the same lecture on the history of the calendar and the calendar reform held twice. On Tuesday I shall be entertaining the good folks at the Urania Berlin e.V. at 17:30 and on Wednesday those at the Wilhelm-Foerster-Sternwarte mit Planetarium am Insulaner Berlin at 20:00.

If you are in Berlin and should you wish to experience The Renaissance Mathematicus in real live Technicolor, living, breathing and even talking then please come along. If you would like to meet up for a chat, coffee or whatever then leave a comment below and I’ll get in touch.

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A change in terminology

A public service announcement:

 

Effective as of today The Hordes of Pharyngula will henceforth be known as The Gnu Model Army: Defenders of the Faith of Scientific Puritanism (F.D. Sci-Pu)

 

H/T  The ever erudite and effervescently witty Ian H. Spedding FCD

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Only nine blogging days to GS #27

I have been neglecting my duties as newly appointed junior Giants’ Shoulders slave. There remain just NINE shopping days till Christmas days for all of you historians of science to formulate, file and finish your masterpieces on “fools, failures and frauds” in sciences for the special 27th editions of the Giants’ Shoulders history of science carnival. When you have fabulated your fantastic offers you can submit them either directly to this months hot host scicurious or here at the blog carnivals’ site.

Two related items: Darin at PACHS has put together an interesting survey on The Giants’ Shoulders and our favourite Darwinian Bulldoggie has put together an awesome list of history of science blogs.

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Not only the press!

The Plato/Pythagoras paper, the press reports on which I criticised yesterday was written by Dr. John Bernard Kennedy of Manchester University who according to his own description has pretty impressive credentials:

I studied mathematics and computers at Princeton. My doctorate is in philosophy from Stanford University, with a specialty in the history and philosophy of mathematical physics. My advisors were Nancy Cartwright, Peter Galison, and John Dupre. I also studied Greek philosophy with Julius Moravcsik, Jean Hampton, and Wilbur Knorr. I was a student for a year at the Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin. I was an assistant professor at Notre Dame University for three years and spent a year doing research at Cambridge University, where I was the principal investigator with an NSF grant, before moving to Manchester University.

These are posted on the web site that he has set up to explain his thesis. Unfortunately he also includes the following in his introduction to the subject:

The two most surprising ideas in Plato’s hidden philosophy may be explained simply. First, the musical and mathematical structures he hid in his writings show that he was committed to the radical idea that the universe is controlled not by the gods on Olympus but by mathematical and scientific law. Today we take it for granted that the book of nature is written in the language of mathematics, but it was a dangerous and heretical idea when it struggled for acceptance in the Scientific Revolution of the 1600s. Giordano Bruno was burnt at the stake and Galileo was condemned and imprisoned. After Socrates was executed for sowing doubts about Greek religion, Plato had every reason to hide his commitment to a scientific view of the cosmos.  But we now know that Plato anticipated the key idea of the Scientific Revolution by some 2000 years. (My emphasis)

I dealt with the supposed anticipation of the scientific revolution by Plato yesterday and now wish to deal with the section that I have emphasised above. If this had been written by one of the denizens of the Pharyngoogoo comment column or a similar intertube cesspit I would not have been surprised but coming from a genuine historian of science this section almost left me speechless.

Where to begin? The idea that the book of nature is written* in the language of mathematics was never dangerous or heretical and nobody was ever persecuted for it by anybody and to claim otherwise is unsubstantiated codswallop. Galileo was condemned and imprisoned for “vehement suspicion of heresy” for having broken the injunction he received in 1616 not to teach or claim that the earth goes round the sun, mathematics had absolutely nothing to do with it.

The inclusion of Bruno in the quote above is positively obscene. Firstly as I have almost certainly pointed out at least a zillion times on various intertube comment columns Bruno was immolated for his theology and not for any scientific theories he might or might not have held. Secondly Bruno famously rejected the mathematisation of natural philosophy that was developing at the end of the 16th century, not exactly the person to name as a martyr for mathematics.

I love experts!

*Thanks to Mike for pointing out that something was missing from this sentence!

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Don’t you just love journalists?

Heterodoxology an essential blog for anyone interested in the occult sciences in the Early Modern Period has an interesting first report on a paper from the Manchester University researcher J. B. Kennedy claiming to have found a Pythagorean sub-text in the works of Plato. I must admit that I’m very sceptical about what I have read so far but will reserve judgement until I have read the paper for myself. However Heterodoxology links to a couple of journalistic reports on the paper that contain a claim that make my toes curl up.

The Guardian offers the following:

Plato is revealed to be a Pythagorean who understood the basic structure of the universe to be mathematical, anticipating the scientific revolution of Galileo and Newton by 2,000 years.

Scientific Blogging offers us this:

Kennedy says the hidden codes show that Plato anticipated the Scientific Revolution 2,000 years before Isaac Newton, discovering its most important concept – that nature is written in the language of mathematics.

These few lines contain so much crap that I’m not really sure where to start. The earliest generation of heavyweight historians of science in the 20th century claimed that the scientific revolution came about because, during the Renaissance, Neo-Platonic philosophy replaced Aristotelian philosophy, emphasising that this was a mathematical Pythagorean Neo-Platonism and not the ethical or religious Parmenidean Neo-Platonism characteristic of the 3rd century CE. The theory here is that far from anticipating the scientific revolution the Pythagorean Plato triggered it, a theory that I largely reject. So what please is supposedly new here?

Also the gap between the very mystical assumption of the Pythagoreans that the natural numbers are the building blocks of the universe and the mathematisation of physics that took place in the 17th and 18th century is a chasm against which the Grand Canyon dwindles into total insignificance.

Finally, at least the Guardian deigned to mention Galileo alongside Newton although both sources ignore Kepler who posited a mathematical God and a geometrical universe before both of them, not to mention the many mathematicians in the 15th and 16th centuries who worked under the same assumption but Scientific Blogging manages to combine the name of Newton with, perhaps, the most often quoted line that Galileo ever wrote (even if it’s only a paraphrase).

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Justifying my existence.

Jennifer Rohn at Mind the Gap has a post that using a modern example illustrates the raison d’être for a large number of the things that I write about and post here. The little guys also matter.

H/t to the Albino Aussie AnthropoidTM

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Thank God for experts

During a roundtable discussion on German television (ARD) one of the so-called football experts in answer to the question why the top South American teams have been performing so much better than their European opposite numbers suggested that it was because being from South American they didn’t suffer from the time difference problems that the Europeans have in South Africa!

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